A. García-Molina, A. Enseñat-Cantallops Neurosciences and History 2016;4(1):34-38
Type of article: SHORT ARTICLE
A. García-Molina1,2,3, A. Enseñat-Cantallops1,2,3 1 Institut Guttmann. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain. 2 Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. 3 Fundació Institut d’Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol. Badalona, Spain.
In 1832, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim toured the United States to promote the practice of phrenology. Among the people attending his lecture in Boston was a young lawyer named James Stanley Grimes (1807-1903). Impressed by Spurzheim's field of knowledge, he decided to study phrenology himself. In 1839, Stanley Grimes published A new system of phrenology, a treatise reflecting the author's peculiar view of the discipline. Grimes proposed a classification system that established three types of cerebral organs: ipseal, social, and intellectual. In a later book, he postulated that there was a direct connection between phrenology and geology, or between brain structure and geological changes. Likewise, he proposed a theory of evolution based on natural selection, which came out eight years before Charles Darwin's On the origin of species. Our purpose is to summarise the contributions of this amateur phrenologist and speculative scientist, who was a privileged witness to both the introduction and the decline of phrenology in the United States.
James Stanley Grimes, brain, cerebral organs, phrenology, phreno-physiology, 19th century history
Neurosciences and History 2016;4(1):34-38
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